It is like stepping back in time. Plants grow and develop later in the season, affecting growth, flowering time, seed production, etc. Emergence of invertebrate herbivores, such as insects are also delayed. In other words, growth of Cardamine plants and subsequent infestation with Scaptomyza fly larvae happens much later in the season compared to lower areas.
Sampling at multiple elevations is a useful method of recording time-dependent characteristics without having to continually observe plants throughout the year. Between North Pole Basin and Emerald Lake we can make comparisons of naturally growing Cardamine populations and when they get infiltrated with Scaptomyza larvae at different life stages simultaneously.